The invention is based on the recognition, which has been proven by experiments that the cooling of the pig casting moulds makes it possible, quite in contrast to the decade old unchanged casting exclusively of light metals with a low melting point, to use for casting heavy metals with melting points above 1, deg C.
The usual plate sizes of copper flat plate coolers consist of 0. It is better to install a few extra bleeder valves than not enough. Fig 2 Different types of cast iron staves The advantage of stave cooling over flat plate cooling is the blanket cooling effect of the staves as compared to point to point cooling effect of flat plate cooler.
The cooling effect of the cast iron staves is determined by the size and the shape of the cooling water tubes inside the stave cooler. Rail-mounted scale cars or computer controlled weight hoppers weigh out the various raw materials to yield the desired hot metal and slag chemistry. The carrying basket itself can have rolls which run along guide rails.
The amount of makeup water used is obviously governed by the operating cycles of concentration of a cooling water recirculation system. These components and other smaller switches and valves make up a typical closed system with a dry air cooler. The tuyeres have a separate circuit for tuyere cooling.
Drops of water that are not evaporated are collected in a collecting trough and are reused. Some rely on the capture and further storage CCS of CO2, while others choose decarbonizing iron and steel production, by turning to hydrogen, electricity and biomass. Reduction zone of ferrous oxide barrel 4.
Since acquiring of cast iron stave technology from former Soviet Union inJapanese have made various improvements for enhancing the durability of the staves. Fig 1 Development of cast iron staves in Japan Different types of cast iron cooling staves are shown in Fig 2.
The granulate slag created in the granular chutes discharges into the associated granulator tank, in which additional slag cooling and steam generation takes place. The majority of pig iron produced by blast furnaces undergoes further processing to reduce the carbon content and produce various grades of steel used for construction materials, automobiles, ships and machinery.
The technology should be fully demonstrated by the end of the s, in line with the timeline set, for example, by the EU to cut emissions significantly. The blast furnace is a huge steel stack lined with refractory bricks, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom.
Leaking cooling members, i. If the duty electric pump fails, the electric standby pump will automatically start.
Sometimes a backup pump is included in this system to prevent downtime if the main pump fails. Blast furnaces with cast iron cooling staves are operating since mid s. Benefits of a closed system include no ongoing water usage and minimal corrosion, scaling, or electrolysis.
It is important that clean filtered water be used to minimize any build up on the coolers fins. As the material travels downward, the counter-current gases both preheat the feed charge and decompose the limestone to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide: In the vent that emergency water system is activated, an audible and a visual alarm in initiated, providing clear warning that the slag flow must be immediately diverted to the slag pits.
It had taken awhile to discover this problem for a few reasons. On this drawing, he has noted at no. Copper flat coolers have a greater uniformity of material properties over the complete cooling element. However, other systems that use evaporative coolers or separate coolers for the power supply and furnaces do exist.
Once the blast furnace is started then it will continuously run for 4 to 10 years with only short stops to perform planned maintenance. The jet nozzles, depending on the locally required cooling efficiency, can be arranged closely or less closely to one another.
He is President of the Committee for Blast Furnace Technology and Water Economics of Blast Furnaces. Formerly with Demag in Duisburg, Germany, he has published a number of papers on blast furnace technology, blast furnace cooling and operational safety procedures.
He is a graduate of the College for Mining and Metallurgy in Duisburg, Germany. Blast furnaces are used to produce iron.
Iron production is one of America’s backbone industries. Iron was the material that gave rise to the Industrial Revolution. Introduction. Induction furnaces are comprised of three main components. These components are the power supply (Fig. 1), the furnace bowl (Fig. 2) and the cooling system.
A blast furnace is used to make steel from liquid iron, while an electric arc furnace is used to make steel from scrap material. Electric arc furnaces use two different types of electrical currents to create heat.
Blast furnaces force air into the bottom of the furnace into a heated stove area. This also furthered the design of the layout of the hot stove with the blast furnace to the use of two to four hot stoves placed in series beside the blast furnace.
This allowed for the heating of one blast stove by offgas as the other one was being drained of its heat to preheat the air blast into the blast furnace. Protective accretions may form on the stave hot face, but if these accretions are lost, the stave is then exposed to abrasion from the descending burden materials, which increases cooler wear and results in cooling circuit failures.Cooling system for blast furnace essay